Romanian language lesson: Past Tense (compound perfect indicative )

The compound perfect indicative is formed with the auxiliary verb “to have” and the past participle of the verb.


The auxiliary verb “to have” has the following forms:


Eu am Noi am
Tu ai Voi ați
El / ea a Ei / ele au


The compound perfect indicative

Affirmative form

A lucra (to work)

Eu am lucrat (I worked) Noi am lucrat (we worked)
Tu ai lucrat(you worked) Voi ați lucrat(you worked)
El / ea a lucrat(he / she worked) Ei / ele au lucrat(they worked)

Negative form

Eu nu am lucrat = eu n am lucrat

(I didn’t work)

Noi nu am lucrat = noi n am lucrat

(we didn’t work)

Tu nu ai lucrat = tu n ai lucrat

(you didn’t work)

Voi nu ați lucrat = voi n ați lucrat

(you didn’t work)

El / ea nu a lucrat = el / ea n a lucrat

(he / she didn’t work)

Ei / ele nu au lucrat = ei / ele n au lucrat

(they didn’t work)


The participle

The participle is formed by replacing the infinitive ending with the participle ending. The participle ending are different according to each group of verbs. Phonetic mutations may also occur in the stem or at the end of the stem.

1st conjugation: the participle ending is –at

A dansa (to dance) – dansat

A învăța (to learn) – învățat

A lucra (to work) – lucrat

2nd conjugation: the participle ending is  ut

A vrea (to want) – vrut

A bea (to drink) – băut

A vedea (to see) – văzut

A avea (to have)   avut

3rd conjugation: the participle endings are  ut, -s or -t

A cere (to ask)   cerut

A crede (to believe)   crezut

A face (to do)   făcut

A merge (to go) – mers

A scrie (to write)   scris

A trimite (to send)   trimis

A fierbe (to boil)   fiert

A rupe (to break)   rupt

4th conjugation: the participle endings are  it,  ât

A dormi (to sleep)   dormit

A iubi (to love)   iubit

A veni (to come)   venit

A hotărî (to decide)  hotărât

Examples of verbs in the Past

1st conjugation

A cumpăra: eu am cumpărat, tu ai cumpărat, el / ea a cumpărat, noi am cumpărat, voi ați cumpărat, ei / ele au cumpărat

A dansa: eu am dansat, tu ai dansat, el / ea a dansat, noi am dansat, voi ați dansat, ei / ele au dansat

2nd conjugation

A bea: eu am băut, tu ai băut, el / ea a băut, noi am băut, voi ați băut, ei / ele au băut

A vedea: eu am văzut, tu ai văzut, el / ea a văzut, noi am văzut , voi ați văzut, ei / ele au văzut

3rd conjugation

A face: eu am făcut, tu ai făcut, el / ea a făcut, noi am făcut, voi ați făcut, ei / ele au făcut.

A cere: eu am cerut, tu ai cerut, el / ea a cerut, noi am cerut, voi ați cerut , ei / ele au cerut

4th conjugation

A veni: eu am venit, tu ai venit, el / ea a venit, noi am venit, voi ați venit, ei / ele au venit.

A vorbi: eu am vorbit, tu ai vorbit, el / ea a vorbit, noi am vorbit, voi ați vorbit, ei / ele au vorbit.

Mona Pologea, PhD. Linguist, Rolang School Managing Director