In 2017, Romania allotted 0.5% of the GDP to research and development (R&D), bellow the EU average of 2.07%, according to Eurostat data. It is the lowest share among the member states.
It puts Romania in a group of countries where the R&D expenditure was below 1% of the GDP in 2017, namely Latvia (0.51%), Malta (0.55%), Cyprus (0.56%), Bulgaria (0.75%), Croatia (0.86%), Lithuania and Slovakia (both 0.88%).
In 2017, the European countries that spent the most on R&D were Sweden (3.33%) and Austria (3.16%), followed by Denmark (3.06%) and Germany (3.02%). Finland (2.76%), Belgium (2.58%) and France (2.25% in 2016) registered R&D expenditure between 2.0% and 3.0% of GDP.
The highest shares of R&D expenditure performed in the business enterprise sector were recorded in Slovenia (75%), Hungary (73%), Ireland and Sweden (both 71%), Bulgaria and Austria (both 70%), Germany (69%), Belgium and the United Kingdom (both 68%).
On the other hand, the highest share of R&D spending in the government sector was recorded in Romania (32%), Lithuania (28%), Luxembourg and Latvia (both 26%).
The highest shares of R&D conducted within the higher education sector were recorded in Latvia (47%), Portugal (43%), Cyprus (42%) and Estonia (40%).
Overall, in 2017, the EU member states spent all together almost EUR 320 billion on R&D.
The statistics on R&D cover all expenditures for R&D performed within enterprises or institutions in every sector of the economy in the EU member states.